Database Development Overview
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Databases - Data Modeling

Data Modeling Overview

A data model is a conceptual representation of the data structures that are required by a database. The data structures include the data objects, the associations between data objects, and the rules which govern operations on the objects. As the name implies, the data model focuses on what data is required and how it should be organized rather than what operations will be performed on the data. To use a common analogy, the data model is equivalent to an architect's building plans.

A data model is independent of hardware or software constraints. Rather than try to represent the data as a database would see it, the data model focuses on representing the data as the user sees it in the "real world". It serves as a bridge between the concepts that make up real-world events and processes and the physical representation of those concepts in a database.


There are two major methodologies used to create a data model: the Entity-Relationship (ER) approach and the Object Model. This document uses the Entity-Relationship approach.

Data Modeling In the Context of Database Design

Database design is defined as: "design the logical and physical structure of one or more databases to accommodate the information needs of the users in an organization for a defined set of applications". The design process roughly follows five steps:

    1. planning and analysis
    2. conceptual design
    3. logical design
    4. physical design
    5. implementation

The data model is one part of the conceptual design process. The other, typically is the functional model. The data model focuses on what data should be stored in the database while the functional model deals with how the data is processed. To put this in the context of the relational database, the data model is used to design the relational tables. The functional model is used to design the queries which will access and perform operations on those tables.

Components of A Data Model

The data model gets its inputs from the planning and analysis stage. Here the modeler, along with analysts, collects information about the requirements of the database by reviewing existing documentation and interviewing end-users.

The data model has two outputs. The first is an entity-relationship diagram which represents the data structures in a pictorial form. Because the diagram is easily learned, it is valuable tool to communicate the model to the end-user. The second component is a data document. This a document that describes in detail the data objects, relationships, and rules required by the database. The dictionary provides the detail required by the database developer to construct the physical database.

Why is Data Modeling Important?

Data modeling is probably the most labor intensive and time consuming part of the development process. Why bother especially if you are pressed for time? A common response by practitioners who write on the subject is that you should no more build a database without a model than you should build a house without blueprints.

The goal of the data model is to make sure that the all data objects required by the database are completely and accurately represented. Because the data model uses easily understood notations and natural language , it can be reviewed and verified as correct by the end-users.

The data model is also detailed enough to be used by the database developers to use as a "blueprint" for building the physical database. The information contained in the data model will be used to define the relational tables, primary and foreign keys, stored procedures, and triggers. A poorly designed database will require more time in the long-term. Without careful planning you may create a database that omits data required to create critical reports, produces results that are incorrect or inconsistent, and is unable to accommodate changes in the user's requirements.


A data model is a plan for building a database. To be effective, it must be simple enough to communicate to the end user the data structure required by the database yet detailed enough for the database design to use to create the physical structure.



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